Development is something that is a trend nowadays. Every country is doing everything what they can to achieve the so called development. In The Republic, Plato understands that humans are going through a cycle that from a primitive society to a well-developed one, then returning to the original starting point (which is the primitive stage of life). The purpose why Plato wrote The Republic is to freeze all society and prevent change. But how could it happen if change is the only constant in this world. Could the society maintain there lifestyle without changing it or develop it? It isolates a human giving them no room for mobility, for example; if he is a farmer, then that is the boundary. The Republic tries to illustrate how justice can be achieved, and how Plato illustrates how to achieve it. The Republic is a dialogue between Socrates, Polymarchus, and Thrasymachus, and others, who are too many to mention, in the house of Cephalus. There argument is about how would just and right be committed, and what is justice? And that lead to the illustration of forming an ideal state, in search for the definition of justice?
Just and right. These terms may constitute many connotations. Its meaning may vary to what it is in the perception of the beholder. As what Thrasymachus defines “just” and “right” as nothing but what is to the interest of the stronger party. But these concepts are some kind of a term that humans cannot ascertain to what these abstract concepts would really mean. As what stated by Plato in his book, The Republic, “‘right’ was what good to someone else and ‘just’ means is serving the interest of the stronger who rules, at the cost of the subject who obeys.
It has 15 chapters. Justice is the main issue in the book. How to attain justice? What is the definition of justice? These were just some of the question that Plato draws an answer in The Republic. He then illustrates it by the forming of an imaginary state. The imaginary state may consist of three classes of people; producers, that is in charge for the sustenance of the society; army, that is in charge for the protection of the society; and guardians, the ruling class. The imaginary state is form in order to trace up where did justice or injustice takes place and the quality of justice may exist in a whole community. Each of the social classes of the society is dominated by one of the three parts of the soul. There is a rational part, spirited part, and appetitive part of the soul. Each of the classes of the society is dominated by one of the three parts of the soul.
The state is form because of the notion that man is not self-sufficing and if it happen that human is self-sufficing he must be not human but a beast or a god and, therefore, they are not part of the state. And by forming this state it may grow larger and larger with many needs are at hand. As it grew, there will be a time that it will come into war because of the struggle of getting unlimited wealth. It will lead to the additional of the members of the community – that is the army. Another class is the Guardians. These are the ruling class. The qualities of being a guardian, as mentioned in the book, which are necessary to make a good guardian, are gentleness and high temper. Aside from these qualities, courage is also important. By these qualities, guardians are compared to a well-bred dog. Just like the well-bred dogs, they are very gentle on the persons that whom they know and fierce to strangers. Then, there will be enlargement of the society. By this enlargement of the community and consideration of comfort may help us to discover how justice and injustice take root. Plato tries to put in plain words how the notion of justice can be obtain then derive a similar concept of individual justice. As what the book stated, it is better to make out the nature of justice in the individual if it will be taken in a larger scale.
It also talks about Philosopher Kings, or rulers are dominated by striving for wisdom. You cannot be a ruler unless you are a philosopher king that they have the wisdom and knowledge to rule. The souls of these philosophers are more than just the others; it aims to fulfill the desires of the balanced part. They form the class of men to possess knowledge. With these basic elements of an ideal society that Plato had installed, it illustrates why men behave justly. In The Republic, it is shown how a perfect society ought to behave and how will the guardians be trained to achieve the so called justice. Plato also explains that the world is divided into two realms; the visible and the intelligible. But only those minds who are trained can grasped the forms, – visible – that is the philosophers. As what he had illustrated, the basic element of an ideal society, must perform its appropriate function (that rulers must rule, producers must exercise whatever skills that is vested to them) to know what justice means. Is justice well defined? Plato end The Republic by defining justice as the greatest good.